Tracking our navigation with ScrollSpy and jQuery

Find out how Bootstrap can transform your standard HTML websites into inspired single-page designs. This course is a project-based approach to learning how to manipulate website layouts with the Bootstrap framework. Staff author Ray Villalobos tackles Bootstrap’s layout classes, like containers, rows, and columns, and shows what it takes to customize Bootstrap’s CSS and address layout challenges like multiple grids and columns. Plus, learn how to track navigation as users scroll, with the ScrollSpy plugin, and create a full-screen, responsive image carousel. See more at: Bootstrap Layouts: Responsive Single-Page Design.

Topics include:

  • Analyzing your markup
  • Creating simple column layouts
  • Creating basic navigation and a simple carousel
  • Modifying Bootstrap styles
  • Working with branding and toggle styles
  • Adding interactivity

Uses for Bootstrap

To use Bootstrap in an HTML page, the developer downloads the Bootstrap CSS stylesheet and includes a link in the HTML file.

(The developer can also compile the CSS file from the downloaded Less or Sass stylesheets, with a special compiler.)

If the developer wants to use the JavaScript components, they must be referenced along with the jQuery library in the HTML document.

The following example illustrates how this works. The HTML code defines a simple search form and a list of results in tabular form. The page consists of HTML 5 elements and CSS information according to the Bootstrap documentation.


A view of the example using Bootstrap, rendered in Google Chrome

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <title>Example of Twitter Bootstrap</title>
    <!-- Include the bootstrap stylesheets -->
    <link href="" rel="stylesheet">
    <div class="container">
      <label>Example for a simple search form.</label>
      <!-- Search form with input field and button -->
      <form class="well form-search">
        <input type="text" class="input-medium search-query">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Search</button>
      <!-- Table with alternating cell background color and outer frame -->
      <table class="table table-striped table-bordered">
            <td>Lorem ipsum dolor ...</td>
            <td>Ut enim ad minim veniam, ...</td>
            <td>Duis aute irure dolor ...</td>
    <!-- JavaScript placed at the end of the document so the pages load faster -->
    <!-- Optional: Include the jQuery library -->
    <script src=""></script>
    <!-- Optional: Incorporate the Bootstrap JavaScript plugins -->
    <script src=""></script>

Example of a webpage using Bootstrap framework rendered in Mozilla Firefox

Creating a simple fluid layout grid

    <div class="row">
       <div class="col-md-4">Text for column 1</div>
       <div class="col-md-4">Text for column 2</div>
       <div class="col-md-4">Text for column 3</div>

This will create three columns of equal width. This is a fluid layout: If the columns are too wide to fit on the screen, they will be stacked automatically.

See more resources:

Creating a Responsive Menu in WordPress for Mobile Devices
Flat UI Pro – Bootstrap Design Framework
Bootstrap grid examples
jQuery ScrollSpy

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Elements of an Android App

Creating an app for Android doesn’t require a full-blown integrated development environment. There are several simple, easy-to-learn and easy-to-use tools that make programming Android apps a breeze. Michael Lehman introduces MIT App Inventor 2, Basic4android, and a few other entry-level development environments to build your own app. He’ll show how to test apps on an Android emulator or directly on your phone or tablet, and demonstrate tools for building hybrid apps that run on Android, Windows Phone, and iOS devices, as well as straight on the web. Start building your first app with these simple tools today. See more at: Simple Android Development Tools.

Topics include:

  • Understanding the elements of an Android app, such as controls, sensors, effectors, and storage
  • Exploring MIT App Inventor 2
  • Getting started with Basic4android
  • Building simple apps
  • Testing apps on Android emulators and devices
  • Sharing apps
  • Creating hybrid apps with Appy Pie, Make Me Droid, and AppMakr

App Inventor for Android


Google App Inventor

App Inventor for Android is an open-source web application originally provided by Google, and now maintained by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

It allows newcomers to computer programming to create software applications for the Android operating system (OS). It uses a graphical interface, very similar to Scratch and the StarLogo TNG user interface, which allows users to drag-and-drop visual objects to create an application that can run on Android devices. In creating App Inventor, Google drew upon significant prior research in educational computing, as well as work done within Google on online development environments.

App Inventor and the projects on which it is based are informed by constructionist learning theories, which emphasizes that programming can be a vehicle for engaging powerful ideas through active learning. As such, it is part of an ongoing movement in computers and education that began with the work of Seymour Papert and the MIT Logo Group in the 1960s and has also manifested itself with Mitchel Resnick’s work on Lego Mindstorms and StarLogo.

App Inventor includes:

  • A designer, in which a program’s components are specified. This includes visible components, such as buttons and images, which are placed on a simulated screen, and non-visible components, such as sensors and web connections.
  • A blocks editor, in which the program’s logic is created.
  • A compiler based on the Kawa language framework and Kawa’s dialect of the Scheme programming language, developed by Per Bothner and distributed as part of the GNU operating system by the Free Software Foundation.
  • An app for real-time debugging on a connected Android device.

On December 6, 2013 (the start of the Hour of Code), MIT released App Inventor 2, renaming the original version “App Inventor Classic” Major differences are:

  • The blocks editor in the original version ran in a separate Java process, using the Open Blocks Java library for creating visual blocks programming languages.
    Open Blocks is distributed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Scheller Teacher Education Program (STEP) and is derived from master’s thesis research by Ricarose Roque. Professor Eric Klopfer and Daniel Wendel of the Scheller Program supported the distribution of Open Blocks under an MIT License. Open Blocks visual programming is closely related to StarLogo TNG, a project of STEP, and Scratch, a project of MIT Media Laboratory’s Lifelong Kindergarten Group. App Inventor 2 replaced Open Blocks with Blockly, a blocks editor that runs within the browser.
  • The | MIT AI2 Companion app enables real-time debugging on connected devices via Wi-Fi, not just USB.

As of May 2014, there were 87 thousand weekly active users of the service and 1.9 million registered users in 195 countries for a total of 4.7 million apps built.

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Packaging an Android app

In this course, author David Gassner shows you how to prepare, package, and publish your Android app on Google Play, and provides a brief overview of the alternatives offered by Amazon and Barnes & Noble. Watch the online video course: Distributing Android Apps

Topics include:

  • Packaging an Android app
  • Distributing through Google vs. Amazon vs. Barnes & Noble
  • Exporting the APK file
  • Testing the app
  • Shrinking and protecting an app with ProGuard
  • Creating and uploading screenshots to Google Play
  • Adding in-app products
  • Tracking app usage and revenue

Android Apps


Android 4.4.2 home screen

Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application’s APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google’s compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user’s device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user’s monthly bill.

As of July 2013, there are more than one million applications available for Android in the Play Store. As of May 2013, 48 billion apps have been installed from the Google Play store.

Applications (“apps”), that extend the functionality of devices, are developed primarily in the Java programming language language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.

It was announced in January 2014 that Chrome HTML5 web applications should become available, using a compatibility layer from the open source Apache Cordova framework to allow such applications to be wrapped in a native application shell, enabling their distribution over Google Play.

In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the People’s Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.

Learn to Build a Simple Android App Interactive Video Learning Path

from: Treehouse

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AngularJS Tutorial: Filtering Output

AngularJS provides filters for formatting raw data prior to output without changing variables. Find out how to set up and work with filtering in this tutorial. Watch more at: Up and Running with AngularJS.

This tutorial is a single movie from the Up and Running with AngularJS course presented by author Joseph LeBlanc. The complete course is 1 hour and 9 minutes and it shows how to extend HTML through the rich JavaScript framework AngularJS.

1. Configuring a New Angular Project
2. Templates
3. Application Structure
4. Server-Side Integration

Filtering (software)

In shells on Unix-like operating systems and in the modern Windows shell, such a filter usually gets most of its data from standard input (the main input stream) and writes its main results to standard output (the main output stream). The command syntax for getting data from a device or file other than standard input is the input operator (“<"). Similarly, to send data to a device or file other than standard output is the output operator (">“). To append data lines to an existing output file, one can use the append operator (“>>”). Filters may be strung together into a pipeline with the pipe operator (“|”). This operator signifies that the main output of the command to the left is passed as main input to the command on the right.

Pipelines in command line interfaces

All widely used Unix and Windows shells have a special syntax construct for the creation of pipelines. In all usage one writes the filter commands in sequence, separated by the ASCII vertical bar character “|” (which, for this reason, is often called “pipe character”). The shell starts the processes and arranges for the necessary connections between their standard streams (including some amount of buffer storage).

AngularJS filtering

Filter code lives in the app/js/filters.js file

Notable Angular directives

AngularJS directives allow the developer to specify custom and reusable HTML tags that moderate the behavior of certain elements.
Declares an element as a root element of the application allowing behavior to be modified through custom HTML tags.
Automatically changes the text of a HTML element to the value of a given expression.
Similar to ng-bind, but allows two-way data binding between the view and the scope.
Allows class attributes to be dynamically loaded.
Specifies a JavaScript controller class that evaluates HTML expressions.
Instantiate an element once per item from a collection.
ng-show & ng-hide
Conditionally show or hide an element, depending on the value of a boolean expression.
Conditionally instantiate one template from a set of choices, depending on the value of a selection expression.
The base directive responsible for handling routes that resolve JSON before rendering templates driven by specified controllers.
Basic if statement directive which allow to show the following element if the conditions are true.

See Some Related Resources:

Using AngularJS at Localytics
Introduction to Web Applications Development
AngularJS at Google+
Batarang Chrome plugin

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CSS Position: fixed-sticky | Flexbox | Google Web Designer

You can find more learning videos similar to this one at: – In this episode of The Treehouse Show, Nick Pettit (@nickrp) and Jason Seifer (@jseifer) talk about CSS Position: fixed-sticky, Flexbox, Google Web Designer and more.


There is no single, integrated CSS4 specification, since it is split into separate modules. However, there are “level 4″ modules.

Since CSS3 split the CSS language’s definition into modules, the modules have been allowed to level independently. Most modules are level 3 – they build on things from CSS 2.1. A few level 4 modules exist (such as Image Values, Backgrounds & Borders, or Selectors), which build on the functionality of a preceding level 3 module. Others define entirely new functionality, such as Flexbox.

So, while there is no monolithic “CSS4″ that will be worked on after “CSS3″ is finished completely, the level 4 modules can collectively be referred to as “CSS4″.



Usage share of web browsers according to StatCounter.

In web development, a polyfill (or polyfiller) is downloadable code which provides facilities that are not built into a web browser. For example, many features of HTML5 are not supported by versions of Internet Explorer older than version 8 or 9, but can be used by web pages if those pages install a polyfill. Web shims like HTML5 Shiv are a related concept.

Polyfills can also be used to add entirely new functionality to browsers. For instance, BrowserID relies on a Javascript API which (as of mid-2012) is not supported in any browser and must be provided via a polyfill.

Google Web Designer

Google Web Designer is a program for Windows and Mac from Google for creating interactive HTML5 sites and ads for any device. It offers a GUI with common design tools, such as Text Tool, Shapes and Pen Tool, as well as integrating Google Web Fonts. The advertising feature set is more complete with components to add Google Maps, YouTube videos and more, as well as automatically including the tracking code events for DoubleClick and AdMob. Version 1 was released by Google on September 30, 2013.

Here are the links from the video:
filamentgroup/fixed-sticky · GitHub

elclanrs/jq-idealforms · GitHub

Focus transition

wilsonpage/fastdom · GitHub

Solved By Flexbox — Cleaner, hack-free CSS
Solved By Flexbox

Top Drawer – A smooth dropdown menu for responsive web design | Experiment #5
Top Drawer

Google Web Designer

Treehouse New Job Board Feature For Members Only! Unlock your full potential!

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HTML5 Video Tutorial: Creating a WebM Video

WebM is a high-quality open-source video format. In this tutorial, learn how to create a WebM video and work with the free Miro video encoder. Watch more at: Up and Running with HTML5 Video.

This tutorial is a single movie from the Up and Running with HTML5 Video course presented by author Tom Green. The complete course is 1 hour and 50 minutes and takes you through the history of video on the web, while showing you how to move forward with HTML5.

1. How We Got into This Mess
2. HTML5 Video Primer
3. Showtime: Playing a Video Stream
4. There Are Alternatives


WebMWebM is an audio-video format designed to provide royalty-free, open video compression for use with HTML5 video. The project’s development is sponsored by Google Inc.

A WebM file consists of VP8 video and Vorbis audio streams, in a container based on a profile of Matroska. The project releases WebM-related software under a BSD license and all users are granted a worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free patent license.

WebM will soon be updated to accommodate the VP9 video codec and the Opus audio codec, according to Google.


YouTube offers WebM videos as part of its HTML5 player experiment. All uploaded files are encoded into WebM in 360p, 480p, 720p and 1080p resolutions. YouTube has committed to encode its entire portfolio of videos to WebM. The YouTube app for the Nintendo Wii uses WebM for streaming videos or H.263 as a fall-back option.
Wikimedia uses WebM for the HTML5 player.

Sorenson Media’s online encoding platform now supports VP8 and WebM.
Skype has implemented the VP8 codec into the Skype 5.0 software.
Logitech is planning to use WebM as part of a video calling service.
Nvidia announced 3D video support for WebM through HTML5 and their NVIDIA 3D Vision technology.

Miro (software)

Miro WebM

Miro 3.5 under Ubuntu, showing the Miro guide in the main window while playing a podcast.

Miro (formerly named Democracy Player or DTV) is an audio, video player and Internet television application developed by the Participatory Culture Foundation. It runs on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, FreeBSD and GNU/Linux and supports most known video file formats. It offers both audio and video, some in HD quality.

Miro is free software, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.


Miro can automatically download videos from RSS-based “channels”, manage them and play them. The application is designed to mesh with other Participatory Culture Foundation (PCF) products such as Video Bomb, a social tagging video website, and the Channel, a TV guide for Internet television.

Miro integrates an RSS news aggregator and podcatcher, a BitTorrent client (based on libtorrent), and a media player (VLC media player under Windows, QuickTime under Mac OS X, and xine media player or GStreamer under GNU/Linux and FreeBSD). Since 2.0, Miro supports the adding of website bookmarks under the “Sites” category; by default, is preloaded in Miro as a bookmark.

Examples of supported video files are QuickTime, Windows Media Video (WMV), MPEG, Audio Video Interleave (AVI), XVID as a video player. It also supports RSS BitTorrent. When a new video is available, the program will notify and download if possible.

The Miro Video Converter converts video formats. It is based on FFmpeg with profiles for the Theora (.ogv), .mp4, and WebM video formats supported by various devices.


A link to download Miro and Mozilla Firefox appeared on the front page of The Pirate Bay in July 2009 underneath a notice “We love free software.”

Miro received a favorable review from Josh Quittner who wrote “I have seen the future of television and it’s an application called Miro.” In May 2011, Seth Rosenblatt of CNET wrote, “Providing one-stop shopping for all your video and audio management desires, open-source and cross-platform Miro deserves much of the praise that’s been heaped upon it.” The Softonic review gave the software a score of 9/10, and described the software as “a perfect example of how video content from different sources can be integrated into one single application and served directly to your PC in a fast, easy and elegant way.”

Here is a link from the video:
Firefog a Firefox plugin.

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App Store Screenshots, Regular Expressions, Programming Fonts

In this episode of The Treehouse Show, Nick Pettit (@nickrp) and Jason Seifer (@jseifer) talk about the latest in web design, web development, HTML5, front end development, and more. You can find more learning videos similar to this one at: Team Treehouse.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) Pronunciation

According to Steve Wilhite, the creator of the GIF format, the intended pronunciation deliberately echoes the American peanut butter brand, Jif, and CompuServe employees would often say “Choosy developers choose GIF”, spoofing this brand’s television commercials. As of 2013, Wilhite remains annoyed that there is debate over the pronunciation.


  • GIFs are suitable for sharp-edged line art (such as logos) with a limited number of colors. This takes advantage of the format’s lossless compression, which favors flat areas of uniform color with well defined edges.
  • GIFs can be used to store low-color sprite data for games.
  • GIFs can be used for small animations and low-resolution film clips.
  • Since a single GIF image palette is limited to 256 colors, it is not usually used as a format for digital photography. Digital photographers use image file formats capable of reproducing a greater range of colors, such as TIFF, RAW or JPEG.


AngularJS programmingAngularJS is an open-source JavaScript framework, maintained by Google, that assists with running single-page applications. Its goal is to augment browser-based applications with model–view–controller (MVC) capability, in an effort to make both development and testing easier.

The library reads in HTML that contains additional custom tag attributes; it then obeys the directives in those custom attributes, and binds input or output parts of the page to a model represented by standard JavaScript variables. The values of those JavaScript variables can be manually set, or retrieved from static or dynamic JSON resources.

Two-way data binding

AngularJS’ two-way data binding is its most notable feature and reduces the amount of code written by relieving the server backend from templating responsibilities. Instead, templates are rendered in plain HTML according to data contained in a scope defined in the model. The $scope service in Angular detects changes to the model section and modifies HTML expressions in the view via a controller. Likewise, any alterations to the view are reflected in the model. This circumvents the need to actively manipulate the DOM and encourages bootstrapping and rapid prototyping of web applications. Some commentators say the AngularJS approach to data binding is much more straightforward than using either Ember.js or Backbone.

Chrome plugin

In July 2012, the Angular team built a plugin for the Google Chrome browser called Batarang, that improves the debugging experience for web applications built with Angular. The extension allows for easy detection of performance bottlenecks and offers a GUI for debugging applications.

Comparisons to Backbone.js

The most prominent feature that separates the two libraries is in the way models and views are synchronized. Whereas AngularJS supports two way data-binding, Backbone.js relies heavily on boilerplate code to harmonize its models and views.

Backbone.js communicates well with RESTful backend. A very simple use of REST APIs is also available with AngularJS using the $resource service. AngularJS also provide a $http service which is more flexible, connecting to remote servers either through a browser’s XMLHttpRequest object or via JSONP.

AngularJS templating uses a combination of customizable HTML tags and expressions. Backbone.js uses different templating engines such as Underscore.js.

Here are some resources from the video:

Designing App Store “screenshots” by Travis Jeffery of 37signals
Designing App Store “screenshots”

Debuggex: The online visual regex tester. Supports JavaScript and PCRE.

Forecast Font

Style Guide Boilerplate

AngularJS: an Overview – Glenn Stovall

CSS filters, GIFs, and performance – What I Learned Building

Slant – What are the best programming fonts?

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An Introduction to WebGL

This overview shows what WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is, and how it can render 3D graphics within any web browser. Watch more at: HTML5 for Flash Developers.

This specific tutorial is a single movie from chapter seven of the HTML5 for Flash Developers course presented by author Lee Brimelow. The complete HTML5 for Flash Developers course has a total duration of 3 hours and 16 minutes, and shows Flash developers how to create dynamic content in the browser using HTML5, CSS, and other related technologies

HTML5 for Flash Developers table of contents:

1. Overview of HTML5
2. Transitioning from ActionScript to JavaScript
3. The Canvas Element
4. DOM Animation
5. Using CSS3
6. Incorporating Audio and Video
7. Incorporating 3D with WebGL
8. Useful Tools and Frameworks



Screenshot from a WebGL-based application running in Google Chrome

WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is a JavaScript API for rendering interactive 3D graphics and 2D graphics within any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is integrated completely into all the web standards of the browser allowing GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing and effects as part of the web page canvas. WebGL elements can be mixed with other HTML elements and composited with other parts of the page or page background. WebGL programs consist of control code written in JavaScript and shader code that is executed on a computer’s Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). WebGL is designed and maintained by the non-profit Khronos Group.

Desktop Browsers

  • Mozilla Firefox – WebGL has been enabled on all platforms that have a capable graphics card with updated drivers since version 4.0. Mozilla Firefox 8.0 and newer versions use Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) to control all WebGL cross-domain textures.
  • Google Chrome – WebGL has been enabled on all platforms that have a capable graphics card with updated drivers since version 9. Google Chrome 13.0 and newer versions use Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) to control all WebGL cross-domain textures.
  • Safari – Safari 6.0 and newer versions installed on OS X Mountain Lion, Mac OS X Lion and Safari 5.1 on Mac OS X Snow Leopard implemented support for WebGL, which is disabled by default.
  • Opera – WebGL has been implemented in Opera 11 and 12, although disabled by default.
  • Internet Explorer – As of version 10, there is no built-in support for WebGL, and Microsoft has not announced any plans for implementing it in the future, but leaked builds of IE11 in Windows Blue have support for WebGL. WebGL support can be manually added to Internet Explorer using third-party plugins such as IEWebGL. (Why is there always a problem with IE?)

Content creation

WebGL scenes can be created without programming using a content creation tool such as Blender or Autodesk Maya. The scenes are then exported to WebGL. This was first possible with Inka3D, a WebGL export plugin for Maya. There are also services to publish interactive 3D content online using WebGL such as and Sketchfab. Some game and simulation authoring tools combine model creation, scene creation and programming. AgentCubes is a 3D game design authoring tool aimed at end users with no modeling and programming background. It combines model creation and drag and drop programming to create WebGL based games.

Embedded WEBGL

As WEBGL is mainly designed to run at the client side with the heavy rendering operations done by the users computer GPU, it can be relatively easily embedded into for example a PIC microcontroller, or any other with the TCP/IP stack implementation, so that the microcontroller will act as a web server and all other tasks will be done on the client side, which could be potentially used to develop embedded monitor and control systems for a variety of applications and many other purposes.

Some links from the video:

Chrome Experiments – “Traveling-Wavefronts”
Chrome Experiments – “Cell-Cycles”

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Performance Evaluation with Chrome DevTools

Paul Irish

Paul Irish is an American front-end web developer, and developer advocate for Google Chrome. He is also recognized as an expert in cutting edge Web Technologies like HTML5 and CSS3. Visit Paul’s site for more information: Why Moving Elements With Translate() Is Better Than Pos:abs Top/left

Front-end development

Irish has created, contributed to, or led the development of many popular front-end web development reference resources and libraries:

  • Front-end Code Standards: A list of best practices for front-end developers.
  • RoboHornet: A benchmarking tool for web browsers.
  • Bower: A package manager for web developers.
  • Modernizr: A feature detection library for HTML5 and CSS3 features.
  • Yeoman: A suite of tools for a web development workflow.
  • HTML5 Boilerplate: A template for HTML5 and CSS3 front-end development.
  • jQuery: A JavaScript library that abstracts DOM manipulation and traversal, animation, event handling, and other common JavaScript tasks.

Google Chrome Features

ChromeGoogle Chrome aims to be secure, fast, simple and stable. There are extensive differences from its peers in Chrome’s minimalistic user interface, which is atypical of modern web browsers. For example, Chrome does not render RSS feeds. One of Chrome’s strengths is its application performance and JavaScript processing speed, both of which were independently verified by multiple websites to be the swiftest among the major browsers of its time. Many of Chrome’s unique features had been previously announced by other browser developers, but Google was the first to implement and publicly release them. For example, a prominent graphical user interface (GUI) innovation, the merging of the address bar and search bar (the Omnibox), was first announced by Mozilla in May 2008 as a planned feature for Firefox. Both Internet Explorer 9 and Safari (version 6) have since merged the search and address bar.

Chrome Web Store

Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, but some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.

The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011 with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.

Chrome’s design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called “cloud computing.” At the touch of a button, Chrome lets you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web page or Web application, blurring the line between what’s online and what’s inside your PC. For example, I created a desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop application than like a Web application or page.
—PC World

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How to Create a Toggle Button With jQuery

This specific tutorial is from the series View Source presented by author Ray Villalobos. The complete View Source series offers 10-minute intermediate and advanced web design projects covering HTML, CSS, social media, and content management solutions. This jQuery tutorial describes how to create Toggle buttons to hide or reveal type, or switch a control on and off. Watch more at: View Source.



  • DOM element selections using the multi-browser open source selector engine Sizzle, a spin-off of the jQuery project
  • DOM traversal and modification (including support for CSS 1–3)
  • DOM manipulation based on CSS selectors that uses node elements name and node elements attributes (id and class) as criteria to build selectors
  • Events
  • Effects and animations
  • AJAX
  • Extensibility through plug-ins
  • Utilities – such as user agent information, feature detection
  • Compatibility methods that are natively available in modern browsers but need fall backs for older ones – For example the inArray() and each() functions.
  • Multi-browser (not to be confused with cross-browser) support.

Including the library

The jQuery library is a single JavaScript file, containing all of its common DOM, event, effects, and Ajax functions. It can be included within a web page by linking to a local copy, or to one of the many copies available from public servers. jQuery has a CDN sponsored by Media Temple (previously at Amazon). Google and Microsoft host it as well.

<script type="text/javascript" src="jquery.js"></script>

It is also possible to include jQuery directly from content delivery networks.

<script src=""></script>

Content Delivery Network (CDN)

A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a large distributed system of servers deployed in multiple data centers across the Internet. The goal of a CDN is to serve content to end-users with high availability and high performance. CDNs serve a large fraction of the Internet content today, including web objects (text, graphics, URLs and scripts), downloadable objects (media files, software, documents), applications (e-commerce, portals), live streaming media, on-demand streaming media, and social networks.

A CDN operator gets paid by content providers such as media companies and e-commerce vendors for delivering their content to their audience of end-users. In turn, a CDN pays ISPs, carriers, and network operators for hosting its servers in their data centers. Besides better performance and availability, CDNs also offload the traffic served directly from the content provider’s origin infrastructure, resulting in cost savings for the content provider. In addition, CDNs provide the content provider a degree of protection from DoS attacks by using their large distributed server infrastructure to absorb the attack traffic. While most early CDNs served content using dedicated servers owned and operated by the CDN, there is a recent trend to use a hybrid model that uses P2P technology. In the hybrid model, content is served using both dedicated servers and other peer-user-owned computers as applicable.

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